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Gladys A. Reichard collection, 1883-1984

MS-022


Overview of the Collection

Creator: Reichard, Gladys Amanda, 1893-1955
Title: Gladys A. Reichard collection,
Inclusive Dates: 1883-1984
Bulk Dates: (bulk 1905-1967).
Quantity: 96.5 cm (3.17 linear feet) textual material, 7 photograph albums, 189 photographic images (154 prints, 7 safety negatives, 5 color slides, 41 slides, 15 postcards), 45 sandpainting reproductions.
Identification: MS-022
Language: Materials inEnglish, Navajo, and German
Repository: Museum of Northern Arizona
3101 N. Fort Valley Rd.
Flagstaff, AZ 86001
928-774-5211 ext. 256 or 269
library@mna.mus.az.us

Biographical Note

Gladys Amanda Reichard (17 July 1893 - 25 July 1955) was born in Bangor, Pennsylvania to Quaker physician Noah W. Reichard and Minerva Ann Jordan. Reichard was of Pennsylvania Dutch heritage. Reichard’s mother died when she was a child and her father got remarried to Laura Digitt. Noah Reichard died in 1926.

Reichard was raised in an intellectually oriented family and began teaching at the age of 16. In 1915, she enrolled at Swarthmore College where she majored in classics. Her interest in anthropology was sparked as a senior at Swarthmore and she immediately enrolled at Columbia University to study under famed anthropologist, Franz Boas. She received her M.A. in 1920 and spent the next few years studying the Wiyot language in California, which was the basis for her doctoral research. She received her PhD from Columbia University in 1925. Boas and Reichard became very close over the years and it was because of him that she got a teaching position at Barnard College. Reichard worked for Barnard College from 1928-1951 teaching general courses in anthropology, primitive art, social life, religion, folklore, problems of race, and introductory courses in linguistics.

Field work was a very important part of Reichard’s life and she spent many of her summers on various Native American reservations, such as the Navajo and Coeur d’Alene studying weaving, sandpaintings, religion, and the languages. She eventually started teaching courses on how to write Navajo to the native speakers on the reservation. Because of her close association with the tribe, Reichard was given permission by some to view ceremonies.

She also studied Melanesian Design in Germany in 1926-1927 and later published a two-volume book on the subject.

During her career, Reichard served as secretary for the American Ethnological Society, the American Folk-Lore Society, the Linguistic Circle of New York, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Around 1940, Reichard began spending every summer and two sabbaticals in Flagstaff, Arizona, doing research at the Museum of Northern Arizona. After suffering 2 strokes, Reichard passed away in 1955 and was buried in Flagstaff.


Scope and Content

This collection includes drafts, notes, and manuscripts for many of Reichard’s published and unpublished works, as well as correspondence about her interests in Navajo ethnology, language, and sandpaintings. The collection also includes sandpainting reproductions, manuscripts written by colleagues and edited by Reichard, photograph albums belonging to Reichard and her colleagues, and biographical records relating to Reichard.


Arrangement

Series 1: Manuscripts/Writings
Subseries 1.1: Manuscripts/Writings by Gladys A. Reichard
Subseries 1.2: Manuscripts/Writings by Others
Series 2: Photographs
Series 3: Research Notes
Subseries 3.1: Other Sandpainting Collections/Information
Subseries 3.2: Ethnology
Series 4: Correspondence
Series 5: Biography
Series 16: Male/Female Shootingway Sandpainting File
Series 17: Miscellaneous Sandpainting File

Restrictions

Conditions Governing Access

This collection contains culturally sensitive material. Therefore, portions of this collection have been restricted. This restriction was placed by staff at the Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department on 30 October 2007. Contact the Museum of Northern Arizona archivist for more information.

Conditions Governing Use

Unpublished and published manuscripts are protected by copyright. Permission to publish, quote, or reproduce must be secured from the repository and the copyright holder.


Related Material

The Museum of Northern Arizona has related archival collections that contain sandpainting images; these have been collected, researched, and cross-indexed by Wyman with material in his sandpainting file:

The University of Arizona has a Roman Hubbell family papers collection (MS-322), which includes Gladys Reichard as a primary correspondent. The University of California, Berkley, has a Gladys A. Reichard collection in its linguistics department as well as at the Bancroft Library. The American Philosophical Society’s Franz Boas papers (Mss.B.B61) contains extensive correspondence with Reichard. Columbia University houses Reichard’s original thesis. Harvard and Princeton libraries also house some of Reichard’s original manuscripts.

All materials created by Alexander Stephen that Reichard collected were removed from Accession #MS-22 and made their own collection. The Alexander Stephan collection is now collection #MS-369.

Sandpainting reproductions in series 16 and 17 correlate with Leland C. Wyman's sandpainting index. This index is located in collection #MS-110.

MS-27 (Louisa Wade Wetherill collection)
MS-33 (Leland C. Wyman Sandpainting collection)
MS-34 (Katherine M. Harvey Sandpainting collection)
MS-63 (Father Berard Haile collection)
MS-100 (Tom Bahti collection)
MS-110 (Leland C. Wyman collection)
MS-132 (Barry Goldwater collection)

Controlled Access Terms

Personal Name(s)
Bittany, Adolph Dodge
Boas, Franz, 1858-1942
Goddard, Pliny Earle, 1869-1928
Miguelito, ca. 1865-1936
Newcomb, Franc Johnson, 1887-1970
Parsons, Elsie Worthington Clews, 1874-1941
Phillips, Barbara
Reichard, Gladys Amanda, 1893-1955
Schwemberger, Simeon
Staples, B.I.
Wyman, Leland Clifton, 1897-1988

Subject(s)
Gallup (N.M.)
Navajo Indian Reservation
Navajo Indians
Navajo Indians -- Education
Navajo Indians -- Folklore
Navajo Indians -- Painting
Navajo Indians -- Religion
Navajo Indians -- Rites and ceremonies
Navajo Indians -- Social life and customs
Navajo language
Navajo language -- Written Navajo
Navajo language materials
Sandpaintings


Administrative Information

Acquisition Information

MS-22 was donated to the Museum of Northern Arizona by Gladys Reichard’s sister, Lillian Reichard in 1956. MS-29 was deposited in 1963 through Reichard's estate.


Bibliography

This collection includes drafts and notes relating to the following publications by Reichard:

Reichard, Gladys Amanda. 1939. Dezba: woman of the desert. New York: J.J. Augustin. Reichard,
Gladys Amanda, and J. F. Huckel. 1939. Navajo medicine man; sandpaintings and legends of Miguelito. New York: J.J. Augustin.
Reichard, Gladys Amanda. 1934. A Navaho speller-reader; for the students of the Hogan School, 1934.
Newcomb, Franc Johnson, and Gladys Amanda Reichard. 1937. Sandpaintings of the Navajo shooting chant. New York: J.J. Augustin.


Container List

Series 1: Manuscripts/Writings 1923-1955 85.25 cm (2.8 linear feet) textual material, 7 photographic images (7 prints)
This series includes notes, correspondence, and drafts relating to manuscripts written by Reichard and her colleagues.
Subseries 1.1: Manuscripts/Writings by Gladys A. Reichard
Subseries 1.2: Manuscripts/Writings by Others
Subseries 1.1: Manuscripts/Writings by Gladys A. Reichard 1923-1955 47.75 cm (1.57 linear feet) textual material, 7 photographic images (7 prints)
This subseries includes notes, correspondence, and drafts relating to manuscripts written by Reichard mostly relating to ethnology and Navajo culture and language.
BoxFolder
13 "Sandpaintings of the Navajo Shooting Chant": introduction, , circa 1937
BoxFolder
311 "Reichard Communications 1 and 3: The Navajo Vote": correspondence, manuscripts, , 1948
BoxFolder
41 "Goals and Methods of Navajo Discipline": manuscripts, correspondence, 1955
42 "Ethnology and the Navajo Language": manuscripts, undated
43 "Navajo Concepts of Well-Being": manuscripts, correspondence, notes, 1955
44 "Some Materials on the Navajo": manuscript, bibliography, 1947
45 "Silver Hatband Understands Rationing": manuscripts, notes, correspondence, 1944-1945
46 "Cultural Influence on Behavior, Emotion, and Attitude": manuscripts, correspondence, 1955
47 "Permissiveness and Navajo Mothers": manuscript, undated
48 "Learning a Language vs. Being Taught": manuscript, undated
49 "Assimilation or Extinction": manuscript, undated
410 "Names and Naming": manuscript, undated
411 "I Personally…": correspondence, manuscript, 1949
412 "Hogan School": manuscript, photographs, undated
BoxFolder
51 "Navajo Religion": chapters for proposed book on Navajo ethnology/mythology, 1950
53 "The Study of Language": manuscript, statement, undated
54 "Navajo Language and the Community Center": manuscript, 1934
55 "Primitive Art": preface by Reichard, 1955
56 Book reviews by Reichard, 1954
57 "From Pauper to Plutocrat": manuscripts, notes, correspondence, 1950-1954
58 "Tonto Rim": manuscript, undated
59 "Ethnology at the Museum of Northern Arizona", undated
511 Untitled manuscript on Navajo ceremonials, and sandpainting descriptions, photographs, undated
512 Drafts on clans, women's' roles, Enemyway, eschatology, undated
BoxFolder
61 "Another Look at the Navajo": holograph copy, undated
62 "Another Look at the Navajo": working copy, undated
63 "Another Look at the Navajo": complete copy, undated
64 "Another Look at the Navajo": incomplete copy, part 1, undated
65 "Another Look at the Navajo": incomplete copy, part 2, undated
BoxFolder
71 "Navajo Religion": excerpts, correspondence, 1943
72 "Navajo Religion": worksheets for proposed book on Navajo ethnology/mythology, 1947-1950
73 "Navajo Child Training": manuscript, undated
74 "Kinship": manuscript, undated
75 Gallup, NM tourism articles, undated
76 "Education Among American Indians": manuscripts, 1952
77 "The Legend of the Shooting Chant" ("Navajo medicine man; sandpaintings and legends of Miguelito"): manuscript, circa 1939
78 "The Legend of the Shooting Chant" ("Navajo medicine man; sandpaintings and legends of Miguelito"): illustration materials, circa 1939
79 Labels for sandpaintings, program for "The Sandpaintings of the Navajo", 1923
710 "The Myth of the Male Shooting Chant Evil Chasing": manuscript, undated
711 "Big Star Story": manuscript, notes, undated
BoxFolder
81 "Navajo Male Shooting Chant": manuscript, part 1, 1942
82 "Navajo Male Shooting Chant": manuscript, part 2, 1942
83 "Chant of Waning Endurance": translation, undated
84 "According to the Waning Endurance of Evils": manuscript, undated
BoxFolder
91 "A Dictionary of Nouns, English-Navajo": manuscript, undated
92 "On Using a Dictionary of the Navajo Language": manuscript, undated
93 "Navajo Dictionary": manuscript, part 1, undated
94 "Navajo Dictionary": manuscript, part 2, undated
95 "Navajo Dictionary": manuscript, part 3, undated
96 "Navajo Dictionary": manuscript, part 4, undated
97 "Navajo Dictionary": manuscript, part 5, undated
98 "Navajo Dictionary": manuscript, part 6, undated
BoxFolder
113 "Navajo Prayers": manuscript, circa 1940
Subseries 1.2: Manuscripts/Writings by Others 1920s-1944 37.5 cm (1.23 linear feet) textual material
This subseries includes notes, correspondence, and drafts relating to manuscripts written by Reichard’s colleagues, most of which have been corrected/annotated by Reichard or used as reference material for her manuscripts.
BoxFolder
510 "Death of a Navajo Medicine Man": correspondence, galley, 1939
513 "Urine and Indigo": excerpts and comments, author unknown, undated
BoxFolder
99 "Myth of the Male Shooting Chant Evil-Chasing": [Bitanny] Navajo language manuscript, undated
910 "Myth of the Male Shooting Chant Evil-Chasing": [Bitanny] English language excerpts, undated
911 "Myth of the Male Shooting Chant Evil-Chasing": [Bitanny] handwritten excerpts, undated
912 "Myth of the Male Shooting Chant Evil-Chasing": [Bitanny] Navajo and English language manuscripts, undated
BoxFolder
101 "Male Shooting Chant: Its Story": P.E. Goddard, manuscript [English], circa 1920s
102 "Male Shooting Chant: Its Story": P.E. Goddard, manuscript [Navajo English] part 1, correspondence, circa 1920s
103 "Male Shooting Chant: Its Story": P.E. Goddard, manuscript [Navajo English] part 2, circa 1920s
104 "Male Shooting Chant: Its Story": P.E. Goddard, typed and handwritten excerpts, circa 1920s
105 Stories by Red Moustache: English/Navajo combined manuscript, circa 1937
106 Stories by Red Moustache: English and Navajo manuscripts, circa 1937
107 Red Moustache: misc. manuscripts, circa 1937
BoxFolder
111 "Big Star Chant Evil-Chasing": Red Moustache transcribed by Adolph Bitanny, undated
112 "Male Shooting Chant Holy": Navajo language manuscript, undated
114 "The Eagle Story": Franc Newcomb, manuscript , 1940
115 Adolph Bitanny's notebook transcription, pg 1462-1777, undated
116 "An Apache Kinship System": Jules Blumensohn, manuscript, undated
117 "Shooting Chant": excerpts, undated
118 Navajo Songs/Prayers, 1940
119 "EW": prayer excerpts, undated
1110 Song/Record Lists, Jim Smith, undated
1111 Adolph Bitanny's notebook transcription, pg 4200+, Record 39+ , 1942
1112 Japanese Tanka, undated
BoxFolder
121 Bitanny Notebooks: Navajo books 2-4, 1932
122 Bitanny Notebooks: books 6-8 [one unnumbered], 1937-1938
123 Bitanny Notebooks: Hail Chant, books 1-4, 1937-1944
124 Bitanny Notebooks: Furnald Hall, books 14-17, undated
BoxFolder
215 Bitanny Notebooks: Furnald Hall 18, Sandpaintings F.J.N [Franc J. Newcomb], undated
BoxFolder
131 Bitanny Notebooks: English/Navajo books 40-43, undated
132 Bitanny Notebooks: Navajo books 50-53, undated
133 Bitanny Notebooks: Navajo books 54, 56-58, 1940-1941
134 Bitanny Notebooks: Navajo books 59-62, 1941
135 Bitanny Notebooks: Navajo books 63-64, 1941
Series 2: Photographs 1983-1884, 1905-1950 1 cm textual material, 7 photograph albums, 124 photographic images (101 prints, 15 postcards, 7 safety negatives, 5 glass-plate negatives)
This series contains photograph albums and loose prints and negatives created by Reichard, Father Simeon Schwemberger, Charlie and Franc Newcomb, B.I. Staples, and other unknown photographers. The images are of Navajos, Southwest architecture, pueblos, Arizona, New Mexico, sandpaintings, ceremonies, Hopi, San Juan, San Ildefonso, and Mexico. Most of the albums created by others were given to Reichard by the creator or through a colleague.
BoxFolder
12 Photographs of sandpaintings in the Bush collection, undated
Box
14 Photograph album: Navajos, Southwest architecture, pueblos, Arizona, and New Mexico, undated
BoxFolder
110 "Dezba: Woman of the Desert": photograph album, circa 1939
111 Photograph album by Father Simeon Schwemberger, 1905
Box
15 Photograph album: Hopi, San Juan, San Ildefonso, etc. dances. Mexico: Guaymas, Cuernavaca, architecture, scenes, people., undated
Box
GP-A 60 Glass plate negatives, 1883-1884
BoxFolder
21 Glass plate negative prints, undated
22 Landscape prints, undated
23 Photographs and notes of sandpaintings; shooting way, emergence myth, water way, hailway, and misc. , undated
24 Navajo photograph album, undated
25 Photograph album by Charlie and Franc Newcomb, undated
Box
16 Photograph album by B.I. Staples, 1913, 1920s-1930s
BoxFolder
31 Postcards, photographs, notes, negative number list removed from B.I. Staples photograph album, undated
32 B.I. Staples original negatives, undated
33 Navajo Postcards, circa 1937
BoxFolder
85 Photographs of Big Hoop ceremony, undated
86 Photographs: paraphernalia for shootingway, undated
87 Photographs of medicine men, 1937-1950
88 Navajo photographs, 1947
Series 3: Research Notes 1937-1967 4 cm textual material
This series includes Reichard’s research notes/collection lists on sandpaintings, the Navajo, and a language notebook.
Subseries 3.1: Other Sandpainting Collections/Information
Subseries 3.2: Ethnology
Subseries 3.1: Other Sandpainting Collections/Information 1937-1967 2.5 cm textual material
This subseries includes lists of sandpaintings in the Reichard and Bush collections.
BoxFolder
11 List of sandpaintings in the Reichard collection annotated by L.C. Wyman, 1962-1967
15 List and descriptions of sandpaintings in the Bush collection, undated
Subseries 3.2: Ethnology 1944 1.5 cm textual material
This subseries includes Catalogues of various Navajo collections at different institutions, miscellaneous notes, and a Pinyon language notebook.
BoxFolder
16 Reichard notes removed from her copy of "Navajo Legends" by Washington Matthews, undated
18 Catalogues of various Navajo collections at different institutions, undated
BoxFolder
514 "Pinyon, 1944": language notebook, 1944
Series 4: Correspondence 1923-1955 4.75 cm textual material, 11 photographic images (11 prints)
This series contains correspondence mostly regarding sandpaintings, and the Navajo from Elsie Clews Parsons, Adolph Bitanny, Katherine Harvey, and others.
BoxFolder
14 Correspondence from and regarding Adolph D. Bitanny, 1937-1947
17 Correspondence, 1936-1947
19 Correspondence and Navajo language materials, 1934
BoxFolder
35 Correspondence mostly re: Navajo, 1933-1935
36 Correspondence, Elsie Clews Parsons, 1923-1933
37 "Navajo Medicine Man": correspondence, 1934-1940
38 Correspondence re: Harvey sandpainting appraisal, Katherine Harvey, 1946-1947
39 Correspondence re: Bush sandpainting collection, photographs, 1932-1938
310 Correspondence re: sandpaintings, Shooting Chant, 1932-1938
Series 5: Biography 1926-1954 2.5 cm textual, 2 photographic images (2 prints)
This series contains interviews of Reichard as well as biographical ephemera.
BoxFolder
34 Biography: clippings, ephemera, booklets, manuscripts, correspondence, photographs, 1936-1947
BoxFolder
52 Interviews of Reichard on anthropology and Gallup, NM, 1939-1945
Series 16: Male/Female Shootingway Sandpainting File 1933-1950 28 sandpainting reproductions, 28 photographic images (24 slides, 17 prints)
This series includes Male/Female Shootingway sandpainting reproductions, and slides and prints of the reproductions.
BoxFolder
SP Image Box 11-2F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Holy People Quartet [SP Index SC-5], undated
SP Image Box 11-2F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Slayer Twin Quartet [SP Index SC-24], undated
SP Image Box 11-2F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Slayer Twin Quartet [SP Index SC-43], undated
SP Image Box 11-2F.J. Newcomb, Female Shootingway, Monster Slayer on the Sun [SP Index SC-36], undated
SP Image Box 11-2Artist Unknown, Female Shootingway, Born for Water on the Moon [SP Index SC-37], undated
SP Image Box 11-2Artist Unknown, Male Shootingway, Born for Water and Monster Slayer [Wyman No. 14], undated
SP Image Box 11-2F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, The Skies [SP Index SC-58], undated
SP Image Box 11-2Barbara Phillips, Male Shootingway, People Overcoming Whirling-Tail-Feather [SP Index SC-17], undated
SP Image Box 11-2F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Holy Man Captured by Thunders[SP Index SC-112], undated
SP Image Box 11-2Miguelito, Male Shootingway, Holy Man Captured by Thunders[SP Index SC-111], undated
SP Image Box 12F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway - Evilway, Baskets of Arrows [SP Index SCE-14], undated
SP Image Box 12F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway - Evilway, Baskets of Arrows [Wyman No. 19a], undated
SP Image Box 12F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway - Evilway, Baskets of Arrows [Wyman No. 19b], undated
SP Image Box 12F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Crooked Snake People [SP Index SC-137], undated
SP Image Box 12F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Crooked Snake People [SP Index SC-138], undated
SP Image Box 11-2F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Crooked Snake People [SP Index SC-140], undated
SP Image Box 11-2F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Big Snake People [SP Index SC-131], undated
SP Image Box 11-2F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Mixed Snakes with Black Corn [SP Index SC-159], undated
SP Image Box 11-2F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Big Snakes/Mountain-Fallen-Away [SP Index SC-151], undated
SP Image Box 12F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Big Snakes/Mountain-Fallen-Away [Wyman No. 25], undated
SP Image Box 12F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Big Snakes/Mountain-Fallen-Away [Wyman No. 25b], undated
SP Image Box 12F.J. Newcomb, Male Shootingway, Endless Snake/Coiled Mountain in Dark Circle Phase [SP Index SC-163], undated
SP Image Box 12F.J. Newcomb, Female Shootingway, Buffalo and Trails to Water on Mountain [SP Index SC-188], undated
SP Image Box 12Artist Unknown, Male Shootingway, Paired Guardians of East/Pouches [Wyman No. 28], undated
Box
S.MC-1Artist Unknown, Male Shootingway, [SP Index SC-165], undated
BoxFolder
SP Image Box 11Artist Unknown, Male Shootingway, Sun and Earth Moon and Sky [Unnumbered], undated
SP Image Box 11Artist Unknown, Male Shootingway, Dark Circle Phase/Flint Armored Arrow People [Unnumbered], undated
SP Image Box 11Artist Unknown, Male Shootingway, Big Snake People [Unnumbered], undated
Series 17: Miscellaneous Sandpainting File undated 17 sandpainting reproductions, 17 photographic images (17 slides, 16 prints)
This series includes Blessingway, Hailway, Big Starway, Mountainway, Nightway, and Navajo Windway sandpainting reproductions, and slides and prints of the reproductions.
See MS-110 Leland C. Wyland Sandpainting Index. Wyman's Sandpainting Index numbers are indicted in square brackets below.
BoxFolder
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Blessingway, Mountains[SP Index BW-52a], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Blessingway, Blue Earth[SP Index BW-46a], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Hailway, Rain People [SP Index HC-7b], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Hailway, Storm (Rain) People [SP Index HC-9c], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Hailway, Night Sky [SP Index HC-11b], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Hailway, Sun With Rays [SP Index HC-13b], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Hailway, preliminary drawing for Sun With Rays [SP Index HC-13b], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Hailway, Moon With Rays [SP Index HC-14a], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Hailway, Big Fly [SP Index HC-23], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Hailway, Cloud People [SP Index HC-19], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Big Starway, Star People and Endless Snake [SP Index BSC-1b], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Mountainway, Mountain Gods With Packs [SP Index BSC-1b], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Mountainway, Mountain Gods [SP Index MC-23], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Mountainway, Great Plumed Arrows [SP Index MC-59a], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Nightway, Shock-Rite [Wyman No. 33, SP Index NC-1], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Nightway, Talking God and Calling God [Wyman No. 34, SP Index NC-1], undated
SP Image Box 13-4F.J. Newcomb, Navajo Windway, Wind People Dressed in Snakes With Big Snakes [Wyman No. 34, SP Index NWC-32], undated