Bookmark this page or copy and paste URL to Email message

Correspondence of Crawley P. Dake 1881-1885

AZ 165

Collection Summary

Creator: Drake, Crawley P.
Collection Name:Correspondence of Crawley P. Dake
Inclusive Dates: 1881-1885
Physical Description:.2 linear ft.
Abstract:Photocopies of correspondence and reports from the Department of Justice relating to law enforcement in the Arizona Territory between 1881-1885
Collection Number:AZ 165
Repository: University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections
University of Arizona
PO Box 210055
Tucson, AZ 85721-0055
Phone: 520-621-6423
Fax: 520-621-9733

Biographical Note

Crawley P. Dake was Union soldier during the Civil War and U.S. Marshal for Arizona Territory from 1878 to 1882. Dake was born at Kenfield, Ontario, Canada in 1827. When the Civil War broke out, he was commissioned in the 5th Michigan Cavalry. He served at Gettysburg and in other major actions until he was wounded and retired as a major in August, 1864. He worked for the Internal Revenue Service before being appointed as the U.S. Marshal for Arizona Territory on June 12, 1878. For the first two years, he dispatched a number of possess to the Mexican border, trying to control the lawlessness taking place there. Dake had a number of famous frontier characters working for him including; Leslie Blackburn, Virgil and Wyatt Earp, and Joseph Evans. After the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona in October, 1881, he was heavily criticized and replaced in July, 1882. He remained in Arizona, living in Prescott, managing mining and business interests until his death on August 9, 1890.

Scope and Content Note

Photocopies of correspondence relating to lawlessness in the southeastern section involving cowboy gangs, difficulties between local law enforcement agencies and the U.S. Marshall, Crawley P. Dake, and his deputy, Wyatt Earp. Correspondents include John J. Gosper, acting Governor of Arizona, and various officials of the U.S. Dept. of Justice. Also includes two reports from Leigh Chalmers, Special Examiner of the Dept. of Justice, Aug.-Sept. 1885. Accompanied by a detailed list each letter and its contents


This collection is organized into two series
Series I: Correspondence 1881-1885
Series II: Reports September 8,1881-1885



There are no restrictions


It is the responsibility of the user to obtain permission to publish from the owner of the copyright (the institution, the creator of the record, the author or his/her transferees, heirs, legates, or literary executors). The user agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Arizona Board of Regents for the University of Arizona, its officers, employees, and agents from and against all claims made by any person asserting that he or she is an owner of copyright.

Access Terms

Personal Name(s)
Dake, Crawley P., 1827-1890.
Earp, Wyatt, 1848-1929.
Gosper, John J.

Geographic Name(s)
Arizona -- Politics and government -- To 1950.
Cochise County (Ariz.) -- History.
Tombstone (Ariz.) -- History.

Law enforcement – Arizona -- History.

Administrative Information

Credit Line

Correspondence of Crawley P. Dake, (AZ 165). Special Collections, University of Arizona Libraries.

Container List

Correspondence , 1881-1885
1 A letter from the Secretary of State, November 15, 1881 referring to the existence of a state of lawlessness on the border.
The letter contains two enclosed letters, of which one is a copy of a letter John J. Gosper, Acting Governor of Arizona, to the Secretary of State, September 30, 1881, relating to lawless conditions on the border and referring to a converstaion about them that he had with the Deputy United States Marshel resident at Tombstone, "Mr. Earp" and the other a copy of a letter from Joseph Bowyer to Gouper, September 17, 1881. Relating to the stealing by "cowboys" of cattle on both sides of the border of the United States with Mexico, and a containing a reference to "Billy the Kid." In Department of Justice of Juctice Sourc Chronlogical File, State Department.
Copy of a letter from the Acting Attorney General to C.P. Dake, United States Marshal for the Territory of Arizona, November 17, 1881,
The letter relates to surpressing the lawlessness along the border
Copy of letter from the Acting Attorney General to C.P. Dake, United States Marshall for the Territory of Arizona, November 17, 1881,
The letter relates to surppressing the lawlessness along the border of Arizona with Mexico,and referring "Mr. Earp, your Deputy at Tombstone." In Department of Justice Instruction Book L, page 205, 1 page; negative photostat.
Copy of a letter from the Acting Attorney General to the Secretary of State, November 17, 1881,
Acknowledging receipt of the Secretary's letter of November 15, 1881 relating to lawlessness and referring to his instructed the Marshal of Arizona and his deputies to cooperate with officers of the Territory in surpressing the prevailing disordrs. In Department of Justice Excutive and Congressional Letter Book J, page 692. 1 page , negative photostate, 40 cents.
Letter from C.P. Dake United States Marshal for Arizona Territory, December 3, 1881,
Reply to the Acting Attorney General's letter of Novmber 17, 1881, and referring to his deputies as including "Messers. Earp and their assistants" and to their having killed serval cowboys (outlaws) in Tomstone recently, "including "Clanton and McLawry's;and enclosed a letter from from J.J. Gosper, Acting Governor of Arizona, Territory, November 28. 1881 (6 pages; electrostat, $1.20, giving his explanation of reasons for the frequent breaches of the peace at Tombsone and its vicinity, and referring to "one of the Earp brothers, not your Deputy, but a brother to the latter" being an some manner conntected with the police force for the City of Tombstone." In Department of Justice Source-Chronological Files, Arizona. 10 pages (letter and enclosed letter).
Letter from S.R. Martin, Special Examiner of the Deapartment of Justice, April 19, 1882,
The letter reports on the fitness of C.P. Dake for reappointment as United States Marshal in Arizona, and stating that "retains upon his force as Deputy, one of the Earp boys of Tombstone, who is now an outlaw. In Department of Justice Appointment Papers, Arizona, 1881-1885, papers relating to C.P. Dake. 3 pages; electrostate.
Letter from James A. Zabriskie, United States Attorney for Arizona Territory, January 22, 1885
The letter requests that an exminer be detailed to ascertain the money disbursed by ex-marshall C.P. Date and referring to "Deputy Marshal Earp and his bank" having killed "quite a number" of the "cowboys," and including other references to "Deputy Earp" one of which that he had gone "into New Mexico and susequently to Colorado." In Department of Justice File 2725-1885. 6 pages; electrostat.
Reports , 1881-1885
2 Report from Leigh Chalmers, Special Examiner of the Department of Justice, August13, 1885,
The report relates to the accounts of ex-Marshal Dake, and containing references to Wyatt Earp, involving a statement that a large sum of money had been "expended by Wyatt Earp, one of his deputies, in Tombstone for ...suppressing...the 'Cow boy raid.'"In Department of Justice Year File 2725-1805. Hand writtien original of report, 11 pages; electrostat. Also, a typed copy of the report 8 pages.

Supplementary report from Leigh Chalmers, Special Examiner, Septtember 3, 1885,
The report relates to ex-Marshal Dake, and referring to Dake's accounts with Wyatt Earp, one of his deputies, and including a reference to having enclosed with the report a letter from Wyatt Earp relating to his financial transactions with Marshall Dake (this letter of Wyatt Earp does not now appear to be in the records of either Department of Justice or the Treasury Department). The Department of Justice File 2725-1885. Handwritten original of supplementary report, 10 pages; electrostat. Also, a typed copy of it, 7 pages; electrostatic and photstatic copies of all theses documents (68 pages, which includes for items 7 and 8 only the typed copies of the two reports identified therein) as quoted above would cost $14 or a 35mm. microflim.