Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico collection 1847-1967 (bulk 1853-1867)

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Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico collection 1847-1967 (bulk 1853-1867)

MS 108

Collection Summary

Creator: Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico
Collection Name:Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico collection
Inclusive Dates: 1847-1967 (bulk 1853-1867)
Physical Description:2 linear feet
Abstract:Collection consists of documents, letters, and visual materials related to Emperor Maximilian, Empress Carlota, and the people associated with them in the European intervention in Mexico, 1861-1867.
Collection Number:MS 108
Repository: University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections
University of Arizona
PO Box 210055
Tucson, AZ 85721-0055
Phone: 520-621-6423
Fax: 520-621-9733

Biographical Note

Maximilian served as Emperor of Mexico from 1864-1867.

Scope and Content Note

Collection consists of documents, letters, and visual materials related to Emperor Maximilian, Empress Carlota, and the people associated with them in the European intervention in Mexico, 1861-1867. Printed holographic imperial appointments and awards are signed by Maximilian, from 1864 to 1866. Other documents include letters and papers of Maximilian, Carlota, President Benito Juarez, and physicians Alvisio Miskey and Francisco Archer. Diaries and memoirs by others relate personal insights about the court and the political revolutions of the time. A diary by Charles Whitehead, mine owner and Mexico City resident, spans the years 1853 to 1865; an undated memoir "Les derniers jours de contre guerilla au Mexique" is by Jules de Rafelis-Saint-Sauveur; and a mimeographed copy of "My recollections of Maximilian" was written by Maria de la Fere, ca. 1907.

Printed documents include magazine and newspaper articles from Mexico, the U.S., and Europe, from 1867 to the centennial remembrance in 1967 of Maximilian's death. Broadsides, decrees by officials such as the interim Governor Rafael J. Garcia, campaign notices, and proclamations about the war encompass the period 1855-1867. An 1895 protest, signed by 126 students, concerns the traitor Leonard Marques being allowed to remain in Mexico. Among the visual materials are cartes-de-visite photographs, photographic postcards, and photogravure depictions of many civil and military individuals. Ephemera include color stills from the 1939 Warner Brothers movie "Juarez." Other items are drawings by H. D. Nichols from photographs, color prints of Mexican locations of historic interest, and a composite photo of the scene before Maximilian and two of his generals, Miguel Miramon and Tomas Mejia, were executed.

Collection is mostly in Spanish; some material is in French, German and English.


This collection is organized into four series:





It is the responsibility of the user to obtain permission to publish from the owner of the copyright (the institution, the creator of the record, the author or his/her transferees, heirs, legates, or literary executors). The user agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Arizona Board of Regents for the University of Arizona, its officers, employees, and agents from and against all claims made by any person asserting that he or she is an owner of copyright.

Access Terms

Personal Name(s)
Archer, Francisco
Carlota, Empress, consort of Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico, 1840-1927
Garcia, Rafael J.
Juarez, Benito, 1806-1872
La Fere, Maria de
Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico, 1832-1867
Mejia, Tomas, 1820-1867
Miramon, Miguel, 1831-1867
Miskey, Alvisio
Rafelis-Saint-Sauveur, Jules de
Whitehead, Charles

Geographic Name(s)
Mexico -- History -- 1821-1861 -- Photographs
Mexico -- History -- European intervention, 1861-1867 -- Sources
Mexico -- Politics and government -- 1861-1867 -- Sources

Genre Form(s)

Administrative Information

Credit Line

Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico papers(MS 108). Special Collections, Universit of Arizona Libraries.

Container List

Series I: Official Documents and Correspondence, 1853-1938
11 Official document from Alaman dealing with the establishment of a Ministry of Public Works, Colonization, Industry and Commerce. (Mexico). , April 27, 1853
11 Alaman, President of the Republic, reminds government employees of their oath of office. (Mexico). , April 28, 1853
11 Adrian Woll to the Minister of the Interior: copy of a proclamation to the inhabitants of Carmargo as a result of an uprising lead by Jan Alvarez. (Carmargo). , April 5, 1854
11 A decree issued by the substitute President of Mexico, Ignacio Comonfort, outlining a government subsidy for foreign commerce conducted in national (Mexican) ships. (Mexico). , January 9, 1856
11 Announcement that Concepcion Lombardo de Miramon is in residence at the National Palace of Chapultepec. (Chapultepec). , May, 1859
11 Zaragonza, Minister of War and Navy, issues a safeguard in the name of the President to Silvestre Alguin for the protection of the latter's property. (Mexico). , August 24, 1861
11 Emilio de Wagner, Minister of Prussia in Mexico, requests Mexican authorities for the safe conduct of transport vehicles from Mexico City to Vera Cruz and return, since they are transporting goods of subjects of a neutral foreign power. (Mexico). , June 27, 1862
11 Printed card from Eugenie to Madame Almonte. (In French). , September, 1862
11 General Escobedo informs General Blanco, Minister of War, that Lt. Francisco Naranjo has been assigned to a reconnaissance unit and has left to report for duty, and that the division in Puebla is working on the fortifications which are expected to be completed by the 10th or 12th of November. (Puebla). , October 29, 1862
11 General Mejia of the Imperial forces assures the inhabitants of Matamoros of complete guarantees for their lives and property. (Jacalitos). , February 26, 1864
11 Certificate in regard to loss of official papers during combat, from Miguel Miramon, General of the Division. (Guanajuato). , March 10, 1864
11 Telegram to Mr. Debranz, inviting him to dine at Miramar at 7 p.m. White tie. (In French). (Trieste). , April, 1864
11 Probably a copy or draft of what a member of the Mexican delegation said to Maximilian when he was offered the crown of Mexico at Miramar on April 10, 1864. (In French). , April 10, 1864
11 A decree by Maximilian in regard to the Imperial coat of arms and the flags of Mexico. (Mexico). , June 10, 1864
11 Jose Blasio (Maximilian's private secretary) orders the Grand Master of Ceremonies to see His Majesty at 12 (noon?). (Mexico). , February 21, 1865
11 A petition by Mexican citizens and creditors of the J. B. Jecker Company to approve arrangement made by the Minister of the Treasury to save the company from bankruptcy. (Mexico). , April 8, 1865
11 William H. Seward, U. S. Secretary of State, thanks J. L. Polk for his letter of condolence upon the death of Seward's wife. (In English). (Washington, D.C.). , July 24, 1865
11 Chart of the seating arrangements for the Crown, the clergy, and other government officials at a mass celebrated in honor of Mexico. , September 16, 1865
12 Juan de Dios Peza, Minister of War, to the Emperor, informing him of the success of French troops in Durango, with a request that they not be withdrawn until they are replaced. (Mexico). , February 6, 1866
12 Moure to the editor of the journal La France. (In French, not translated.) (Mexico). , February 10, 1866
12 Leon Lewis Castellanos, correspondent for the (N.Y.?) Ledger, to the editor, Robert Bonner, regarding three articles he has written on the Mexican situation. Reports that he is about to be dispatched to Mexico "as a confidential agent of General Santa Anna." Encloses a part of a letter from Santa Anna. (In English). (Penn Yan, Yates County, N.Y.). , June 28, 1866
12 General Ignacio Mejia to Silvestre Alguin. , February 22, 1867
12 Because of war conditions, the Emperor grants an extension of time to the Mexico and Tuxpan Railroad to complete certain work on the railroad without the payment of a fine. If, however, the work is not finished by the expiration of the new time, the Railroad will be subject to the penalty of the original agreement. Signed by Marquez. (Mexico). , May 7, 1867
12 Lerdo de Tejada to Carlos Maria Larranaga, requesting the restoration of rights to government employees which were deprived them during the Empire. (Mexico). , January 17, 1868
12 Senor Lerdo de Tejada appoints Vicente Cardenas as clerk of the 2nd section of the Department of the Interior. (Mexico). , August 7, 1874
12 Fernando Ramirez nominates Luis C. Curiel as interim chief clerk of the Department of Justice and Public Instruction. (Mexico). , November 30, 1876
12 Regarding the appointment of Luis C. Curiel (see above). , December 1, 1876
12 Empress Eugenie to Madame Almonte. Note of appreciation for the Madame's best wishes for the new year. (In French). (Florence). , February 25, 1877
12 Mariano Escobedo, the Mexican General to whom Maximilian surrendered, testifies that General of Brigade Fernando Toucel took part in the battle of Queretaro and conducted himself with bravery and honor. (Mexico). , October 12, 1889
12 Death certificate of Miguel Lopez (traitor). (Mexico). , April 26, 1891
12 Clothilde Almonte certifies that the attached Cross of San Carlos is that of the society founded in Mexico by Empress Carlota, and that the cross belonged to her grandmother, Dona Dolores Quesada de Almonte, First Lady of Honor at Carlota's court. (Cross missing). (In French). (Mexico). , March 9, 1938
Series II: Letters, Itineraries, and Photographs of Maximilian and Carlota, 1847-1866
13 Maximilian to M. Dore, telling of the true manner in which someone died. (In French). (Schoenbrun). , July 7, 1847
13 Maximilian to Schaub, regarding name and purpose of the Institute of Marine Science. (In German). (Venice). , May 18, 1858
13 Maximilian regrets his inability to attend meeting of the Council because of naval business at Trieste. (In German). (Miramar). , June 19, 1861
13 Maximilian approves the major expense which is the distribution of prizes made in the present year to the students of the Academy and of Noble Arts of San Carlos. (Mexico). , January 1, 1864
13 Maximilian to "Baron", acknowledging letter asking for a meeting with Maximilian on the 22nd at Miramar. Will be "uncommonly" glad to see him, and hopes that he will telegraph him the moment he (the Baron) arrives. (In German). (Miramar). , February 4, 1864
13 Empress Carlota thanks Senora Almonte and through her the ladies of the Court for the gift of a dressing table. (Mexico). , June 17, 1864
13 Maximilian directs his Secretary of War to answer a letter from General Bazaine to the effect that in accordance with what he (Bazaine) proposes, the means which should be given to the protection of the Peninsula of Yucatan should be delayed, since the coast is guarded by French naval forces, and an estimate of the present situation should be made resulting in a definite decision. (Mexico). , June 25, 1864
13 Maximilian appoints Don Manuel Orozco y Berra as an Assistant Secretary in the Ministry of Public Works. (Mexico). , November 15, 1864
13 Maximilian to Baronin Sturmfeder, Lady-in-Waiting to Kaiserin Karoline Aguste von Osterreich. A friendly letter: "...Although very busy, I am feeling very well and enjoy myself in my position and in the beauty of the country. Charlotte blushes like a rose and has never been so cheerful... I would like you here with us..." With envelope addressed in the Emperor's hand. (In German). (Chapultepec). , December 28, 1864
13 Maximilian calls the attention of Minister Cortez y Esparza to an extensive report on government political problems and requests him to extract ones pertinent to his departure for study and recommendations for solution. (Chapultepec). , January 5, 1865
13 Maximilian to Dr. Jilek, regarding general conditions in Mexico. (In German). (Chapultepec). , February 10, 1865
13 Maximilian to Siliceo, acknowledging letter of the 27th regarding the "gossip and intrigue" which is current from Rome and Washington. However, he is not frightened and remains firm on the path he has taken. Minister Siliceo has his confidence and gratitude. "The only deed that I deplore is that circumstances do not permit us to even explain the energy and swiftness that is necessary for the good service to the Nation." (Pachuca). , August 29, 1865
13 Empress Carlota to Senora Almonte in Mexico City. A telegram stating she heard of the illness of the latter's husband and asking about his present condition. She states that she herself is very well. (Vera Cruz). , October 21, 1865
13 Maximilian gives detailed instructions to his Master of Ceremonies. (Mexico). , December 9, 1865
13 Telegram from Maximilian to the Minister of Government: "I will give you orders in order that the Imperial visitor Garcia will arrange as soon as possible with Count Thun that I await him with anxiety as a result of the latest success of the Austrian troops. Misantla is already occupied by our troops." (Chapultepec). , December 24, 1865
13 Maximilian thanks Minister Estera for the latter's expression of condolence up the death of King Leopold of Belgium. (Chapultepec). , January 19, 1866
13 Maximilian grants permission to General Juan N. Almonte to accept decorations conferred by the Kings of Belgium and Spain. (Mexico). , March 12, 1866
14 Royal Itinerary of trip from Vera Cruz to Puebla. , December 23-27, (year?)
14 Royal Itinerary of the Empress on her visit to Merida. Also general instructions for the retinue (division of the cavalcade, positions of various persons dress), Greetings of the Empress to the people on arrival, dance program in her honor, playbill for "Isabel the Catholic" (dedicated to the Empress), printed expressions of gratitude from the people, and copies of newspapers reporting on the visit. , November, 1865
15 Maximilian: Photographs
16 Carlota: Photographs
Series III: Letters, Documents, and Writings of Other Individuals, 1856-ca. 1907
Benito Juarez Letters and Documents, 1856-1865
17 Juarez acknowledges the receipt of a government document and states he will answer as soon as possible. (Oaxaca). , July 10, 1856
17 Certificate of gratitude to Lt. Juan Ramirez, Infantry, for his conduct on the 5th of May, 1862, in Puebla. (Mexico). , May 30, 1862
17 Juarez to General Miguel Vignese, regarding military operations against the Empire in Durango. (Chihuahua). , March 14, 1865
Dr. Alvisio Miskey Letters and Documents, 1865-1867
18 Dr. Jilek to "Friend" (Dr. Miskey?), regarding a letter from this friend and showing it to the Empress. (In German). (Vienna). , April 18, 1865
18 Dr. Miskey is made physician of the Imperial Court. Signed by Almonte. (Mexico). , August 1, 1865
18 Maximilian makes Dr. Miskey a caballero of the Imperial Order of Guadalupe. (Mexico). , December 26, 1865
18 Certification of Dr. Miskey's promotion to Captain, 2nd class, in the Medical Corps of the Austro-Mexican volunteers in 1865. Signed by the Minister of War. (Mexico). , April 10, 1866
18 Furlough certificate of Dr. Miskey. (Puebla). , May 14, 1866
18 Unidentified correspondent to "Friend" (Dr. Miskey?), regarding fast trip from Mexico to Trieste. (In German). (Vienna). , July 27, 1866
18 Printed program of a concert by the Societe Philharmonique de Bruxelles. (In French). (Bruxelles). , July 13, 1866
18 Frau Wuha (?) to Dr. Miskey, regarding a prescription. (In German). (Miramar). , August 11, 1866
18 Dr. Miskey is made a chevalier of the Order of Leopold. Accompanied by official certificate, dated July 20, 1866. (In French). (Burxelles). , September 3, 1866
18 Frau Wuha (?) to Dr. Miskey, regarding a prescription. (In German). (Miramar). , October 26, 1866
18 Dr. Jilek to Dr. Miskey, regarding Empress Carlota's concern over the health of Vice-Admiral von Tegelhof. (In German). (Miramar). , November 7, 1866
18 Frau Wuha (?) to Dr. Miskey, concerning general affairs at the palace. (In German). (Mexico). , December 27, 1866
18 Award of Order of Leopold Medal to Dr. Miskey. (In German). (Graz). , January 13, 1867
18 Discharge paper of Dr. Miskey from Mexican service. (In German). (Orizaba). , February 24, 1867
18 Unidentified corresponent (but same handwriting as Frau Wuha ?) to Dr. Miskey, regarding crate of goods from Mexico and court affairs. (In German). (Miramar). , April 17, 1867
18 Dr. Dietrich to Dr. Miskey, mainly about personal affairs. (In German). (Altona). , October 25, 1867
18 Musical program. Trieste? (In German). , No Date
18 Notes of Dr. Miskey. (In German). , No Date
18 Request for medical excuse to a military order. (In German). , No Date
18 Description of a painting of Maximilian astride a horse, by Ebersberg. (In German). , No Date
18 List of rare items from Mexico -- apparently packed in crates and cases, and shipped from there to Dr. Alais Edlen at Graz, Austria. (In German). , No Date
Dr. Francisco Archer Letters and Documents, 1857-1866
19 Immigration paper, Bordeaux, France, to Buenos Aires, Argentina. (In French). (Bordeaux). , July 24, 1857
19 Letter enclosing a decree appointing Dr. Archer as surgeon of the line of the frontier on the Chaco. (Parana). , October 18, 1858
19 A General Order of the General Headquarters on the Chaco, promoting Surgeon 2nd Class Archer to Surgeon 1st Class. (Parana). , March 25, 1860
19 By order of the President of the Republic of Argentina, Dr. Archer is assigned as surgeon aboard (unidentified) ship. (Rosario). , October 5, 1861
19 Letter enclosing a decree granting Dr. Archer a six-months sick leave because of ill health. (Parana). , November 30, 1864
19 Appointment of Dr. Archer as titular physician of the Province of Jujuy, Argentina. Accompanied by statement of his duties in this position. (Jujuy). , March 30, 1865
19 Acceptance of the resignation of Dr. Archer as the titular physician of Jujuy. (Jujuy). , August 8, 1865
19 American and Mexican Steamship Co. dinner menu. (In English). , June 8, 1866
Charles Whitehead Diary, February, 1853-April, 1856
110 Resident of Mexico City, apparently the owner of mines in Veta Grande and Comanja. Chiefly a personal diary, but includes notes and experiences of the many political revolutions of the years 1853-1865. (In English). , February, 1853-April, 1856
Series IV: Articles, Ephemera, Photographs, and Broadsides, 1855-1967
111 Jules de Rafelis-Saint-Sauver: "Les Derniers Jours de la Contre Guerilla au Mexique." , 18--?
112 Maria de la Fere: "My Recollections of Maximilian." , 1907?
113 Henry C. Clarke: "A Day's Fighting in Queretaro." ( Harper's). (In English). , 1868
113 John Heard, Jr.: "Maximilian and Mexico." ( Scribner's Magazine). (In English). , June 1894
114 Galleys of "Le Statut Provisoire de l'Empire Mexicain." (In French).
114 Menu of a party given by Empress Carlota on her birthday. , June 4, 1866
114 Poetic tributes to Maximilian.
114 Pictures of civil and military medals for merit (Imperio Mexicano). , 1863
114 Photocopy of a notice to emigrants: "The Forns' Colony," regarding land offered for settlement on the Panuco River, Tamaulipas, Mexico. (In English). , February 6, 1866
114 Card of Dr. v. Basch, physician to Maximilian. (Inscribed in German).
114 Models (standards) of stationery paper and stamps ordered to be used in accordance with the Circular of November 1, 1865.
115 Eight photographs from the movie, "Juarez," starring Paul Muni, Bette Davis, Brian Aherne.
115 Musical score, "Poor Carlotta!" Words by Paulina, music by F. W. Root. Chicago. , 1867
115 Issue of Point West, containing excerpt from play by Tim Kelly, Song of the Dove. (In English). , February, 1964
21 Photographs of Events in the Life of Maximilian.
22 Photographs of Trieste and Miramar.
23 Photographs of the Trial and Execution of Maximilian, and Generals Mejia and Miramon.
24 Photographs of Chapultepec and Museum Pieces.
25 Photographs of Mexico: Miscellaneous Places and Battles.
26 Photographs of Benito Juarez.
27-11 Photographs of Persons, A-Z.
212 Photographs of Persons (Miscellaneous, mostly small photographs).
213 Photographs of Clergy (small photographs only).
214 Military Photographs (small photographs only).
3 "Maximilian's Movement." Original drawing by H. D. Nichols.
3 "The Calvary of Queretara." Original drawing by H. D. Nichols.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , June 20, 1855
Decree by Antonio Lopez de Santa-Anna conferring the cross of Knight of the National and Distinguished Mexican Order of Guadalupe upon Pedro Rafael Conejo.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , May 1, 1858
"Miguel Maria Azcarate, Retired Colonel and Governor of the District of Mexico to the inhabitants, know ye:
That through the Minister of Justice, Ecclesiastical Affairs and Public Instruction, the following has been addressed to me. His Excellency, Felix Zuloaga, the President pro tem of the Republic, issues an order consisting of twenty-nine articles.
Article 1. Those who rob on the roads or uninhabitated sections and those who rob with violence or make forced entry in any way to houses, and the accomplices of those, will be judged by a regular council of war.
Article 2. In the cities where the General Commanders reside and in any place where there are Captains in sufficient number -4 of these and a chief will form the War Board to judge the prisoners mentioned.
Article 3. The Board will consult with the Counselor from the Juridical Body of the Military where there is one and, where there is not, with the Judges of the Criminal and Civil Courts who will serve alternately, and if there are no Judges in the place, the Board will consult with any lawyer who is in the place where the Board meets or in the nearest place thereto." (Trans. The remaining articles de la with the manner and terms in which justice shall be meted out.
3 Broadside (Puebla). , January 21, 1861
Miguel Castulo de Alatriste, Constitutional Governor of the free and sovereign State of Puebla, informs the inhabitants that through the Secretary of State and the Government Office the following decree has been communicated to him. This decree is issued by Benito Juarez, provisional constitutional President of the United States of Mexico, and concerns the civil status of individuals. The first 17 articles set forth the general rules. The subsequent articles (18-24) deal with birth certificates; the next articles (25-35) deal with marriage certificates; the last articles deal with death certificates. Issued in the Palace of The Governor General, Veracruz, July 28, 1859. Published in Puebla, January 21, 1861.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , September 21, 1862
Supplement of The Herald, giving important news of the day, including the expected arrival of French troop reinforcements and the blockage of Tampico.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , January 22, 1863
The Triumph of the National Army over the French at the Bar of Tampico. Artillery, supplies, war ammunition and three ships are taken. We have just received the very important communication which we hasten to publish. The invaders have just committed a new act of barbarism which has characterized all their acts in the Republic. At the same time the National Army has won another glorious triumph which should be placed at the side of that of 5 of May. The future of the Republic is brilliant at this moment. The enemy is advancing on Puebla; but in addition to the heroic and enthusiastic garrison that is found there, today the army fromthe center, 8000 strong is on the move. To the triumph of Puebla have been added almost at the same time those of Tampico and those of Acapulco, from whence the French have had to retire also, their barbaric bombardment on an empty city being futile, as was the fire and destruction in Tampico...
Tampico, January 22, 1863. Juan de la Garza - Minister of War and Navy. (Partial translation).
3 Broadside (Mexico). , January, 1863
Very Important Campaign Notices. Enemy movements.
Samples of French civilization that the invaders offer us:
Transgressions committed by the French troops in Tehuacan.
The outrages committed at Tehuacan offend us to the quick.
Take up arms, Mexicans! The Minister of War and Navy receives reports from the commander at Tehuacan that the enemy forces have taken that town, and that the population has suffered considerable losses... The Official Bulletin of December 31 says that "we have letters from Quecholac saying that French troops are continually arriving at Palmar; they will probably form their base for operations there..."
More campaign notices: According to notices received, it seems that the enemy has finally decided to move and some of the advance guards have reached Queholac. From telegraphic information yesterday it is known that at 9 a.m. General Carbajal reached Acatzingo...
San Agustin del Palmar: It has become known that General Forey reached this point accompanied by the traitor Almonte who had a horrible fear of remaining alone in Orizava...
Reports from Tampico, Cuernavaca, Chautla... by Florencio M. del Castillo. (Partial translation).
3 Broadside (Mexico). , February 11, 1863
Decree of Benito Juarez, Constitutional President of the United States of Mexico, setting a tax of one per cent for the Federal Administration Budget for the current year. A statement of what is taxable under this decree is given.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , March 22, 1863
Correspondents Comonfort and Rozas Landa report from Rio Prieto on the occupational of Santiago by the French army. Have not been damaged by batteries; perhaps some houses located between the forts at San Javier and Carmen prevented it... The combat has begun. The first blood is flowing now. God save the Republic and reward the bravery of our men...
Comonfort reports from Cuautlancingo: The enemy is organizing two strong columns, entered into light combat with the riflemen of Nuevo Leon, one man from the regiment of Parras was killed. Inform the President; he will continue in the field...
Blanco and Comonfort exchange information about the dead soldier, and the President's plans to take up a subscription to pay the debts of the soldier...
From the Venta de San Antonio, Comonfort gives additional reports on the movements of the troops, the position of the enemy, etc.
3 Broadside (Toluca). , March 19, 1863
War news, issued by Secretario Eleuterio Avila, telling of the advance of French forces to the outskirts of Mexico City.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , May 18, 1863
Ponciano Arriaga, Governor of the Federal District, to the inhabitants, know ye:
"That through the Minister of Foreign Relations and Government the following has been addressed to me: That the President of the Republic has seen fit to declare that from today the Federal District is in a state of rigorous siege, and that in consequence the Military Command takes charge of political affairs."
3 Broadside (Mexico). , May 18, 1863
Ponciano Arriaga, Governor of the Federal District, to the inhabitants, know ye:
"That the President has ordered:
1) That within 3 days from the date of this supreme resolution all the French subjects in the City of Mexico and in other parts of the Federal District shall leave by the road of Morelia or of Queretaro to a distance not less than 40 leagues from this Capital; there can be no exemption except in the case of those physically disabled.
2) This very day the French who are in the City of Mexico must hand over to the Government of the Federal District all the arms they have in their possession. The Government will give them a receipt and will fix a sum for them. A fine will be imposed on those who retain their arms.
3) The French referred to in this resolution can dispose of their property freely, with the exception of their arms."
3 Broadside (Mexico). , May 19, 1863
Minister of War and Navy reviews the war situation and transfers the President's exhortations to the civilian governors and military commanders of the various states to aid in the defense of Mexico City against the French.
3 Broadside (Puebla). , May 21, 1863
Decree of General Forey under the authority of the Regency for the confiscation of the private property of Mexican citizens opposed to the French intervention.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , May 28, 1863
Order of General Juan J. de la Garza, dealing with the evacuation from Mexico City of all females under 16 and all over 60 years of age in preparation for defense of the City.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , June 10, 1863
"The General of the Division (Forey), Senator, and Commander in Chief of the Expeditionary Forces in Mexico, to the inhabitants of the Capital, know ye:
I do not want to take a moment of rest before having expressed all my gratitude for the brilliant welcome which you have today given to the valiant army that I have the honor to command. I do not have words adequate to express what my heart has experienced, but I have contracted today a sacred debt -- that of working tirelessly to give you what you most desire: peace, order, justice and true liberty. I am counting on all good Mexicans to help me in the fulfilling of this mission...
When an edifice has been destroyed it can only be rebuilt little by little if it is to be really solid. Have patience, therefore, and with Divine Protection in which I place all my confidence we shall overcome the difficulties of the great work of regeneration.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , July 13, 1863
Proclamation by General Forey, commanding the French intervention forces, to dissident Mexicans to join him in setting up a stable government in Mexico. (In both Spanish and French).
3 Broadside (Mexico). , July 16, 1863
Manuel G. Aguirre, Political Prefect of Mexico to the inhabitants, know ye:
"That it has been brought to the attention of this Office that some business houses and work shops are keeping open for business on Sundays and Holidays. This is an infraction of the laws. I have arranged that those disobeying the law will be punished. The ruling published July 9, 1853 is here given..."
3 Broadside (Mexico). , April 10, 1864
Supplement of The Society people. Two news items from New York via Veracruz, telling of the official acceptance by Maximilian of the throne of Mexico at Miramar, his residence in Trieste, Austria on April 10, 1864.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , May 19, 1864
Jose del Villar y Bocanegra, Political Prefect of the Department of Valle de Mexico to the inhabitants, know ye:
That I have received the following communication... Imperial Palace, Mexico, 19 of May, 1864. The Regency of the Empire has deigned to arrange the solemn publication of the act sent from Miramar by the Mexican Commission charged with the offering of the votes of the Mexicans and the Crown to Maximilian.
Proclamation detailing the ceremony at Miramar Palace near Trieste, April 10, 1864, when Maximilian was offered the crown, giving names of those in attendance and full text of Maximilian's acceptance. The same day he issued a decree naming Juan N. Almonte his Lieutenant General in the Empire during the time which must elapse until he, the Emperor, can reach the Mexican territory. The Regency ceases to function upon receipt of this decree, and General Almonte as Lieutenant of the Empire is in charge of the Government. Issued by the Political Prefect, Jose del Villar y Bocanegra. Sec. Gen., Alejandro Villasenor.
3 Broadside (Veracruz). , May 28, 1864
The Political Prefect of el Valle de Mexico to the inhabitants, know ye:
That His Majesty, the Emperor Maximilian, addressed to the Mexicans the proclamation that I have the honor to communicate to you:
"Mexicans: You wanted me! Your noble nation by a spontaneous majority has designated me to watch over your destinies from today on. I yield with joy to your call. However painful it may have been for me to say goodbye forever to my native country and to my people, I did it persuaded that the Almighty had appointed me through you to the noble mission of devoting all my strength and all my heart to a people who, worn out by combats and disastrous struggles, sincerely desire peace and well-being, to a people who, having gloriously established their independence, wish to enjoy the fruits of civilization and true progress... Let us unite to attain a common objective. Let us forget the sombre past, let us bury party hatred, and the dawn of deserved peace and happiness will come again radiant to the New Empire."
3 Broadside (Mexico). , June 6, 1864
Second Supplement to no. 352 of The Society. Details concerning the entry of their Imperial Majesties into Puebla. Celebration, acclamation, ceremonies, order of the group which is to accompany their Majesties from Guadalupe on the 12th.
3 Broadside (Chapultepec). , September 16, 1866
Decree by Maximilian in regard to land. Detailed provisions for the granting of land to small villages which require it for the support of their populations. (In Spanish and an Indian language).
3 Broadside (Zacapoaxtla). , September 26, 1866
Rafael J. Garcia, provisional Governor of the free and sovereign State of Puebla, informs the inhabitants that:
considering that all the citizens of the State have the strict duty of contributing in whatever manner it is possible for them to the defense of the country and the re-establishment of the Republic, that while those who have not been favored with wealth, are fulfilling that duty by offering their blood and their life to attain the freedom of the country, it is just from every point of view that those who have means should contribute, in proportion to their importance, for the expenses required by war. But in order to prevent extortion and to carry out the plan equitably, Garcia issues the decree governing the amounts and manner in which the contributions shall be made...
3 Broadside (Monterey). , December 2, 1866
Supplement to no. 31 of the official newspaper of Monterey. Contains report of the Governor and Military Commander, M. Escobedo, of the Nueva Leon in regard to the surrender of Matamoros to the forces of the Army of the North, December 1, 1866.
3 Broadside (Puebla). , March 11, 1867
Supplement to no. 18 of the official paper of Puebla. News from the Interior:
A respectable person from Mexico writes to another person in this city the following: "In my last letter I informed you of the movements of the Army under the personal command of the Emperor, as far as Queretaro, and of how the forces of Escobedo had avoided combat. Now I have little to add. The rebels continued their retreat toward San Luis por la Laja, San Miguel and San Felipe. At seven this evening in combat between Escobedo's troops and those of the Emperor, there was a complete triumph for the Imperial Army. Escobedo and Trevino and various chiefs and officials were taken..."
The General in Chief of the 3rd Division to the inhabitants of Puebla:
"Fellow Citizens: After vacillating a thousand times, the enemy has finally resolved to come against the City. You all know that a serious illness kept me in my bed. But the nearness of the enemy renewed my enthusiasm and brought nearer to my mind the duties that bind me to you and to the National Government. You now have me at the head of the worthy and honorable soldiers whom I chance to command, and I am ready to inflict an exemplary punishment on the enemy and to sustain the cause of order and of society. Compatriots, do not doubt: the enemy will have to repent of its mad intention. The god of battles is with us. Your fellow citizen and friend, Manuel Noriega."
The General in Chief of the 3rd Division of Puebla to the troops under his command:
"Soldiers: Today the enemy has decided to test our valor and loyalty. I am counting on the loyalty and valor of the people of Puebla who have never allowed this heroic city to be attacked with impunity..."
3 Broadside (Puebla). , March 17, 1867
Mars, God of Wars. New Bulletin; Political, Military and Police Paper. v. 1, no. 4. Defeat of the Rebels in the Interior. Toluca:
It is known that at a late date the rebel forces were making ready to leave that city for Morelia. Those who are close to Mexico have received orders to withdraw to Toluca in order to proceed also to Morelia. The Mexican Times said Sunday afternoon: "On considering the map of Mexico and noting the position of the forces, we see clearly that the liberal chiefs have formed plans very like those which General Grant formed in order to defeat General Lee and take Richmond. We can say that Queretaro is the Richmond of this campaign, and that Escobedo approaching with his forces is the General Grant, while Corona in place of Sherman is little by little cutting communication and intercepting the supplies of the Imperial Army of Queretaro. The most blind of men can see what the plan of the liberals is, but it will not succeed for two reasons. First, because the Emperor Maximilian is a skilled leader with military experience and he will not divide his numerous army, but will move on Escobedo or on Corona to defeat each on separately. We do not believe that the liberals are anxious to take a chance against the 20,000 well-disciplined soldiers of the Emperor, supported by 60 pieces of artillery."
The Union said yesterday that a Don Martin Estrada, and another person whose name they do not recall, have turned with 500 well-armed men in favor of the Emperor. The same paper said that 100 armed men who belonged to the French Army and who were fighting in the ranks of Riva Palacio have abandoned that standard and have presented themselves to the Imperial Government.
Additional news of Valle de Mexico, the Interior, Queretaro, Cuautitlan. Rumor of a battle at Queretaro.
3 Broadside (Puebla). , March 20, 1867
"Viva the Emperor!" General D. Manuel Noriega, in command of Imperial Forces in Puebla, publishes a congratulatory and encouraging letter received from Teodosio Lares of the government in Mexico for his (Noriega's) gallant defense of Puebla.
3 Broadside (Puebla). , March 31, 1867
Supplement to no. 18 of the official paper of Puebla. Report on the communication of General Leonardo Marquez that he is coming with a column of 8,000 men from the three armies and hopes that the garrison at Puebla will do everything possible to hold out until he arrives.
Manuel Noriega, Brigadier General in charge of the 3rd Division of the Second Body of the Imperial Army, to the loyal inhabitants of the beautiful and unconquered Puebla: an expression of faith in the success of the Emperor, and that victory for religion, the Union and Independence of Mexico will be attained...
3 Broadside (Zaragoza, i.e. Puebla). , April 2, 1867
Orders of General Juan Ramirez, political head of the capital and district of the puebla of Zaragoza, to the inhabitants:
Within 24 hours from 5 p.m. all materials of war abandoned by the enemy shall be turned over to the political government. Arms, horses, equipment that is hidden shall be turned over to the same office. Objects that have been used by the enemy in the construction of their fortifications will be collected and placed in the public granary at the disposal of the Government Office so that they may be returned to the owners. Those who keep in their possession arms abandoned by the enemy will be fined from 25 to 200 pesos or will be sentenced to from 1 to 4 months in prison.
3 Broadside (Zaragosa, i.e. Puebla). , April 2, 1867
Bulletin from the East, no. 26. The capture of Puebla... A great event which brings out clearly the invincible force of the Republican troops... What has just happened in Puebla foretells with all certainly what will happen in Mexico and Queretaro, if the rest of the traitor factions persist in prolonging the struggle. In the midst of the confusion attendant upon the attack on the town, the General in charge did not forget the laws of society, and further, to arouse the local authorities to the necessity for keeping order he has taken the most earnest care that the conduct of the army should match its proverbial discipline...
Telegrams of congratulation to Diaz from Gamboa, Rincon, and Garcia.
Telegram of congratulation to Benitez from General Baranda.
3 Broadside (Zaragoza, i.e. Puebla). , April 5, 1867
Tribute to his "companions in arms" from Porfirio Diaz, General in charge of the Army of the East, for the heroism and success as conquerors of Puebla.
3 Broadside (Puebla). , April 6, 1867
Rafael J. Garcia, provisional Governor of the free and sovereign state of Puebla, to the inhabitants:
"Fellow citizens: Providence has given me the honor of being at the head of the state at this moment of the reconquest. My presence in this capital after the glorious deeds that have just been finished has a meaning so obvious that there is not much left for me to say about the transcendency of the latest happenings in our domestic politics. Today legal order in its fullest sense has come again for Puebla... We must join together to pay tribute to the Army of the East. The mission of the troops has ended favorably as far as Puebla is concerned. Our federal and domestic institutions are now in charge throughout the state..."
3 Broadside (Puebla). (2 copies). , April 7, 1867
Rafael J Garcia decrees that the rights to practice law or to be a notary or business agent given by the tribunals established by the usurping government are null and void. Those who are included in the article must present their diplomas within eight days to the Secretary of Justice.
3 Broadside (Zaragoza, i.e. Puebla). , April 8, 1867
Notice: The Governor orders that all those individuals who served the Empire in civil or military capacity or in any manner present themselves in this Capital to the Secretary of Government and Military within three days, and that those who are outside of the Capital report to the political leaders. If they do not do so, action will be taken against them in accordance with the law of the 25th of January, 1863.
Jose Maria Bautista, Secretary of Government and Militia
3 Broadside (Zaragoza, i.e. Puebla). , April 9, 1867
Rafael J. Garcia, interim Governor of State of Puebla, informs the inhabitants that, in compliance with the provisions in Article 18 of the law of Dec. 4, 1860, he offers the following ruling concerning the bells: the ringing in the Capital as well as in the Districts shall be only at dawn, at 12 noon, 3 in the afternoon, the angelus, at 8 in the evening, and the curfew which is customarily from 9 to 10. Further regulations are given concerning the time. Anyone breaking these rules will be punished by a fine from 5 to 50 pesos.
3 Broadside (Zaragoza, i.e. Puebla). , April 24, 1867
Rafael J. Garcia informs the inhabitants that the President of the Republic, Benito Juarez, has issued the following decree:
Article 1, women uncloistered by virtue of the decree issued February 26 past will enjoy all the rights that the laws of the country grant to women...
There are 17 more articles treating the status of these women and what rights and privileges they are to be guaranteed. (Written in pen at the end: "Decree of the 25th of this month.").
3 Broadside (Guadalupe Hidalgo). , April 26, 1867
The General in Chief of the Army and the Eastern Division (Porfirio Diaz) to the inhabitants, know ye:
that the owners, renters, administrators of the lands over which pass the wires or where are placed the telegraph posts which General Headquarters uses to communicate its orders, are responsible for any damage committed to such lines with the object of interrupting communications. The responsible parties spoken of in the above article will be fined 20 pesos for every post torn out, the same amount for every meter of wire that is missing, and a like amount for each day that the communication is broken off.
3 Broadside (Puebla). , April 29, 1867
Juan Nepomuceno Mendez, Brigadier General of the Republican Army, Governor and Military Commandant of the State of Puebla, tells the inhabitants, his fellow citizens, that the worthy Chief of the Army of the East has honored him by putting him in charge for the time being of the government and of the military command of Puebla. The situations here, as well as in the whole country, is so difficult that Mendez asks the full cooperation of the citizens in carrying on the work. The army that is fighting for the cause of the Republic is worthy of the full consideration of every one. The knowledge that the State has of his conduct in office, and the publicity that all his acts will have in the very transitory period of his administration excuses him from setting forth the program he proposes to follow, but this can be summed up in a few words -- "blind obedience to law and the absolute triumph of the Republican Chiefs."
3 Broadside (Zaragoza, i.e. Puebla). , April 29, 1867
Rafael J. Garcia, to his fellow citizens:
"A decision of the General in Chief of the Army of the East entrusts to General Juan N. Mendez the government of the State which until today has been in my charge. I return, then, to private life, after having given to my State my best services, and I return with the conviction that I have fulfilled the trust that the acceptance of the command imposed on me, in moments most critical for my country. Before retiring from public life, I should have liked to give an accounting to the people of all the acts of my administration, but circumstances did not permit"
Garcia, however, will prepare a manifesto covering the two periods of his administration. It will be based on official records and important data, and will become the historic document of the administration of the State during his rule.
3 Broadside (Mexico). , May 1, 1867
An imperial decree, signed by Marquez, which reduces from 25 percent to 20 percent of the total tax on industry and business transactions, the said 20 percent to be used to defray the expense of work involved in providing drainage in the capital city and valley of Mexico.
3 Broadside (Puebla). , May 3, 1867
Program for the ceremony of the 5th of May. Eleven articles are given concerning the festivities -- bell ringing, participants, details of ceremony, fireworks, etc.
3 Broadside (Queretaro). , May 19, 1867
Traitors taken prisoner at Queretaro. A list, including the Emperor and officers. Also an item referring to a message from Maximilian to Prussian Minister in Mexico requesting help in his defense.
3 Broadside (Zaragoza, i.e. Puebla). , May 23, 1867
Juan N. Mendez, Brigadier General, and Civil and Military Governor of the State of Puebla, decrees that a tax shall be imposed one time only on the Catholic clergy. It shall be collected at two different dates at 10 days and 20 days from the publication of this decree. Quotas given, places named, curates of the different classes are defined. The Government reserves the right to lessen this contribution in the case of individuals who have rendered services to the cause of the Republic. The money derived from this collection will go for the General Commissary of the Army of the East and for military hospitals.
3 Broadside (Queretaro?) , June 19, 1867
Last letter of Maximilian to the inhabitants of Mexico. Also last words before his execution.
3 Broadside (Puebla). , June 20, 1867
Execution of Justice. Publication of the results of the trial of Maximilian, Miramon, and Mejia, who were found guilty and sentenced to death by a firing squad on June 19,1867.
3 Broadside (Zaragoza, i.e., Puebla). , June 21, 1867
Viva Mexico. General Headquarters in Puebla publishes a telegram telling of the capitulation of Mexico City and steps taken to maintain public order.
3 Broadside (Zaragoza, i.e. Puebla). , August 27, 1867
Juan N. Mendez, Brigadier General, and Civil and Military Governor of the State of Puebla, informs the inhabitants that the following decree of Benito Juarez, Constitutional President of the United States of Mexico, has reached him. The decree concerns the condemning adjudication, redemption or collection on property administered by the clergy.
3 Broadside (Toluca). , June 1, 1895
A protest signed by students... "We protest in the most energetic way against allowing the greatest, the bloodiest, and most repugnant traitor, Leonardo Marques, to remain in the country of the martyrs of Tacubaya, and of Melchor Ocampa, innocent victims among many others of that ferocious monster... The land in whose bosom lie the sacred of Juarez, Ocampo, Gonzalez Ortega, Leandro Valle, Lerdo and a thousand others should not hold the body of that coward." Signed by Raul Lalanne and 125 others.
3 Ten Imperial Appointments and Awards, signed by Maximilian. , 1864-1866
3 Newspaper Clippings, chiefly from Vienna and Mexico. (In German, English, and Spanish). , 1867-1967