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Groups Against Smelter Pollution (G.A.S.P.) records, 1984-1987

MS 402

Collection Summary

Creator: Groups Against Smelter Pollution (G.A.S.P.)
Collection Name:Groups Against Smelter Pollution (G.A.S.P.) records
Inclusive Dates: 1984-1987
Physical Description:8 Linear Feet (about 9,300 items)
Abstract:Records, 1984-1986. This collection is composed of the records of Groups Against Smelter Pollution (G.A.S.P.), including: administrative files; activity files; communication files; correspondence; newspaper clippings; negatives, photographs, and slides; and one scrapbook. Also includes research materials compiled by G.A.S.P., regarding the Phelps Dodge Corporation as well as other topics of interest to this environmental coalition.
Collection Number:MS 402
Repository: University of Arizona Libraries, Special Collections
University of Arizona
PO Box 210055
Tucson, AZ 85721-0055
Phone: 520-621-6423
Fax: 520-621-9733

Historical Note

Groups Against Smelter Pollution (G.A.S.P.) was founded in 1984 by a group of concerned citizens who sought to minimize smelter pollution in Southeastern Arizona and Northern Sonora for the preservation of human health, the environment, and the economy. Acting upon their mission, Groups Against Smelter Pollution organized to educate themselves and others about what they referred to as the "Grey Triangle," an area formed by three smelters: the Phelps Dodge Smelter in Douglas, Arizona, the Compania Minera de Cananea smelter in Cananea, Sonora, and the Mexican de Cobre Smelter in Nacozari, Sonora. G.A.S.P. focused on education, outreach and direct action: publishing newsletters, organizing protests, circulating petitions and instigating letter writing campaigns throughout their three years of operation. With the majority of G.A.S.P. membership located in the Bisbee/Douglas area, group members focused their activism on compelling public officials to force Phelps Dodge Corporation to meet the federal air pollution standards of the Clean Air Act by July 16, 1986 or shut down the Douglas Reduction Works. G.A.S.P. members were also active in documenting the health and environmental effects smelter pollution was having on themselves, their families, and their communities through photographs and testimonials. In 1986, G.A.S.P. put intense pressure on the Environmental Protection Agency to deny Phelps Dodge Corporation the Nonferrous Smelter Order that would allow the smelter to continue operating with no restrictions. In July of 1986 the Environmental Protection Agency refused to renew a suspension of the exemption from state smokestack emissions limits. Phelps Dodge closed the smelter on January 15, 1987. G.A.S.P. disbanded shortly thereafter.

Scope and Content Note

Records, 1984-1986. This collection is composed of the records of Groups Against Smelter Pollution (G.A.S.P.), including: administrative files; activity files (containing records of demonstrations, meetings, and health surveys); communication files (containing newsletters, press releases, and other G.A.S.P. writings); correspondence; newspaper clippings; negatives, photographs, and slides (containing images of smelter pollution and environmental activism); and one scrapbook. Also included are research materials regarding the Phelps Dodge Corporation, particularly documents pertaining to the legal debate on the operation of Douglas Smelter and its eventual closure. Additionally the collection includes subject files on topics of particular interest to this environmental coalition, such as health and environmental issues relating to smelter pollution, and individuals and organizations related to the smelter debate. Please note that dates listed reflect the subject content of the material.


This collection is organized into eight series. Four series contain subseries: Administrative Files, Activity Files, Phelps Dodge Files, and Subject Files.
Series I: Administrative Files, 1984-1987
Subseries:Organizational History, 1985
Subseries:Financial Files, 1984-1986
Subseries: Contact Files, 1984-1987
Subseries: Petition Files, 1985-1986
Series II: Activity Files, 1984-1987
Subseries:Communication Files, 1984-1986
Subseries:Events Files, 1985-1987
Subseries: Health Survey Files, 1985
Series III: Correspondence Files, 1984-1991
Series IV: Phelps Dodge Files, 1960-1986
Subseries:General Files, 1960-1989
Subseries:Smelter Monitoring Files, 1984-1986
Subseries: Legal Files, 1984-1986
Subseries: Phelps Dodge Copper Queen Environmental Docket, 1985-1996
Series V: Subject Files, 1973-1989
Subseries:Copper Industry Files, 1982-1985
Subseries:Environmental Files, 1977-1989
Subseries: Health Files, 1974-1990
Subseries: Individuals, 1983-1986
Subseries: Organizations, 1983-1986
Series VI: Newspaper Clippings, 1981-1991
Series VII: Negatives, Photographs, and Slides, 1980-1986
Series VIII: Oversized Materials , 1987





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Access Terms

Corporate Name(s)
Groups Against Smelter Pollution (G.A.S.P.)

Geographic Name(s)
Cochise County (Ariz.)
Douglas – Arizona – Economic Conditions

Air Pollution -- Arizona.
Copper mines and mining -- Arizona.
Environmental protection -- Arizona -- Citizen participation.
Green movement -- United States.
Smelting -- Environmental aspects -- Arizona.
Smelting -- Environmental aspects -- Mexico.

Administrative Information

Credit Line

Groups Against Smelter Pollution (G.A.S.P.) records (MS 402). Special Collections, University of Arizona Libraries.

Container List

Series 1: Administrative Files, 1984-1987
.75 Linear Feet (Approximately 1,200 Items)
Arrangement: Alphabetical
The Administrative Files Series is divided into four subseries. Subseries: Organizational History (1985), contains letterhead and business cards, G.A.S.P. statements of mission and purpose, and promotional materials such as stickers, buttons, and posters. Subseries: Financial Files (1984-1986), contains records of public contributions, records of G.A.S.P. expenses (invoices and receipts), and bank statements. Subseries: Contact Files (1984-1987), contains business cards, mailing lists (for members and organizational contacts), and phone lists. Subseries: Petition Files (1985-1986), contains blank petition forms and records of the three major petitions circulated by G.A.S.P.
Subseries:Organizational History
11 Letterhead. , 1985.
12 Mission. , 1985,undated.
13 Promotional Materials. , undated.
Subseries:Financial Files
14 Bank Statements. , 1984-1986.
15 Contributions. , 1984-1986.
16 Fundraising. , 1984-1986.
17 Invoices. , 1984-1986.
18 Receipts. , circa 1980s.
Subseries:Contact Files
19 Business Cards. , undated.
110 Government Contacts. , 1985-1986.
111-13 Mailing Lists. , circa 1984-1987.
114 Media Contacts. , undated.
115 Schools and Organizations. , 1984,undated.
Subseries:Petition Files
21 Blank Petitions. , undated.
22 General Petition. , undated.
23 Nonferrous Smelter Order Petition. , 1986.
24 Operating Permit Petition. , 1986.
Series 2: Activity Files, 1984-1987
.25 Linear Feet (about 375 Items)
Arrangement: Alphabetical
The Activity Files Series is divided into three subseries. Subseries: Communication Files (1984-1986), contains organizational newsletters, public action alerts, Mexican publications, general statements written by G.A.S.P. members, press statements and notes and memoranda. Subseries: Events Files (1985-1987), contains announcements and minutes from meetings and hearings, clippings and publicity regarding G.A.S.P. sponsored demonstrations, and a video of the 1986 "Die-In" smelter protest. Subseries: Health Survey Files (1985), contains records of a respiratory survey, asthmatic registry, and air particulate sampling study conducted by G.A.S.P. in conjunction with Dr. Andrew Slaski.
Subseries:Communication Files
25 Action Alerts. , 1985, undated.
26 General Statements. , 1985, undated.
27 Mexico--General Communications. , 1984, undated.
28-10 Newsletter. , 1984-1986.
211 Notes and Memoranda. , 1985,undated.
212 Press Statements. , 1985-1986.
Subseries:Events Files
213 Announcements. , 1986-1987,undated.
214 Demonstrations. , 1985-1986.
215 "Die-In" Protest Video. , 1986.
216 Meetings. , 1985-1986.
Subseries:Health Survey Files
217 Respiratory Survey. , 1985.
218 Slaski Study. , 1985.
Series 3: Correspondence Files, 1984-1987
.25 Linear Feet (about 375 Items)
Arrangement: Alphabetical
This bulk of this series contains general correspondence between G.A.S.P. members and various parties. Additionally there are separate groups of correspondence between Arizona Department of Health Services, the Environmental Protection Agency, and other state and federal legislators. There is also a folder of letters written by Palominas Public School Children to the Environmental Protection Agency after viewing a G.A.S.P. presentation on smelter pollution.
219 Arizona Department of Health Services. , 1984-1986.
31 Children. , 1985.
32 Environmental Protection Agency. , 1984-1986.
33-4 General. , 1984-1991.
35 Legislative. , 1984-1986.
Series 4: Phelps Dodge Files, 1984-1987
1 Linear Foot (about 1,300 items)
Arrangement: Alphabetical
The Phelps Dodge Series is divided into three subseries. Subseries: General Files (1960-1989), contains general information on the Phelps Dodge Corporation including financial reports, newspaper clippings, company publications, and detailed information on Phelps Dodge smelters and smelter closures. Subseries: Smelter Monitoring Files (1984-1986), contains Arizona Department of Health Services monitoring, Environmental Protection Agency notices of violation, as well as citizen complaints to Arizona Department of Health Services regarding Phelps Dodge smelter pollution. Subseries: Legal Files (1984-1986), contains records of various legal proceedings pertaining to Phelps Dodge operating permit applications, including related correspondence and the deposition of G.A.S.P. member Cathé Fish before the Arizona State Air Pollution Control Hearing Board.
Subseries:General Files
36 Financial Reports. , 1984-1985.
37 Newspaper Clippings. , 1972-1986.
38 Publications. , 1985-1989.
39 Smelter--Information. , 1960-1985.
310 Smelter Closure--Economics. , 1985-1986.
Subseries:Smelter Monitoring Files
311 Air. , 1984-1986.
312 Citizen Complaints. , 1985-1986.
313 SO2 Peak/ Mean Ratios. , 1985.
314 Water. , 1984-1985.
Subseries:Legal Files
41 Consent Decree. , 1986.
42 Consent Decree--Comments. , 1986.
43 Deposition of Cathé Fish. , 1985.
44 Nonferrous Smelter Order. , 1985-1986.
45 Operating Permits. , 1984-1985.
46 Operating Permit Denial. , 1986.
47-8 Operating Permit Hearings. , 1985-1986.
49 Environmental Accountability. Phelps Dodge Report Card from the Mineral Policy Center, 1993
410 Environmental Accountability. Correspondence between Arizona Toxics Information (ATI) and Phelps Dodge (PD), 1992-1993
411 Water Quality. Groundwater. Correspondence between EPA and M. Gregory, 1985
412 Water Quality. Groundwater. Bisbee-Naco Aquifer Contamination. General, 1987-1989
413 Water Quality. Groundwater. Bisbee-Naco Aquifer Contamination. US EPA Sole Source Designation, 1983-1988
414 Water Quality. Groundwater. ADEQ Aquifer Protection Permit (APP) Application, 1990 application, 1990
415 Water Quality. Groundwater. ADEQ Aquifer Protection Permit (APP) Application, water quality testing, 1990
416 Water Quality. Groundwater. ADEQ Aquifer Protection Permit (APP) Application, hydrogeologic report, 1994-1996
417 Water Quality. Groundwater. ADEQ Aquifer Protection Permit (APP) Application, CCHS/ADEQ correspondence, undated
418 Surface water quality. Contamination issues, Mule Gulch violations, 1979-1996
419 Cochise Project. Newsclippings, general, 1985-1996
420 Cochise Project. ADEQ Aquifer Protection Permit (APP), Correspondence, ADEQ to Phelps Dodge, 1992
421 ADEQ rules and procedures. Organic monitoring procedures, undated
422 ADEQ rules and procedures. Safe drinking water section, undated
423 ADEQ rules and procedures. Arizona drinking water rules, undated
424 ADEQ rules and procedures. Information for establishing a new water system, 1994
425 ADEQ rules and procedures. Soil remediation rules, 1995
426 ADEQ rules and procedures. Fact sheet, Aquifer Protection Permits (APP), 1995
427 ADEQ rules and procedures. APP concise explanatory statement, 1993
428 ADEQ rules and procedures. APP water quality boundaries and standards, 1995
429 Phelps Dodge file. Area water report, 1995-1996
430 Miscellaneous documents pertaining to Phelps Dodge, 1987-1996
431 ADEQ rules and procedures. Inorganic monitoring procedures, undated
432 Original index from Arizona Toxics Information, undated
51 Operating Permit Hearings--Comments. , 1985.
Series 5: Subject Files, 1960-1989
3.25 Linear Feet (about 4,825 items)
Arrangement: Alphabetical
The Subject Files Series contains a mixture of materials including publications, government documents, research reports, promotional materials, clippings, and correspondence, relating to a variety of subject areas of interest to the G.A.S.P. membership. The files were created by G.A.S.P. members as an open resource for citizens of Bisbee to educate themselves on air pollution and smelter operation issues, although some files were added during the arrangement of the collection. This series is divided into five subseries: Subseries: Copper Industry Files (1982-1985), Subseries: Environmental Files (1977-1989), Subseries: Health Files (1974-1990), Subseries: Individuals (1983-1986), and Subseries: Organizations (1983-1986).
Subseries:Copper Industry Files
52 Bunker Hill Mine--Video. , 1985.
53 General. , 1985.
54 Magma Copper Company. , 1985.
55 Mexico. , 1980-1985.
Subseries:Environmental Files
61-2 Acid Rain--Canada. , 1980-1986.
63 Acid Rain--Clippings. , 1979-1986,undated.
64 Acid Rain--Legislation. , 1983-1985,undated.
65 Acid Rain--Publications. , 1984-1988,undated.
66 Acid Rain--Reports. , 1978-1985,undated.
71 Acid Rain--Reports. , 1978-1985,undated.
72 Air Pollition. , 1978-1987,undated.
73 Air Pollution--Control. , 1982-1984.
74 Air Pollution--Economics. , 1985,undated.
75 Air Quality Monitoring. , 1983-1985,undated.
76 Atmospheric Visibility. , 1979-1984.
77 Clean Air Act. , 1977-1985.
81 Clean Air Act. , 1977-1985.
82 Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. , 1989.
83 National Ambient Air Quality Standards. , 1986.
84 Pollution and Agriculture. , 1973-1984,undated.
85 Sulfur Dioxide. , 1980-1985.
86 Toxic Release Control Act. , 1985.
87 Water Pollution. , 1979-1985,undated.
88 Water Quality Standards. , 1985-1987,undated.
Subseries:Health Files
91 Arsenic Exposure. , 1974-1986,undated.
92 Asthma. , 1980-1986.
93 Birth Defects. , 1981-1986.
94 Cadmium Exposure. , 1978-1985.
95 Cancer. , 1977-1985.
96 Lead/Arsenic Study. , 1985-1987.
97 Occupational Safety. , 1985,undated.
98 Pseudo Croup. , 1984.
99 Respiratory Studies. , 1974-1985,undated.
910 Toxics and Hazardous Chemicals Exposure. , 1979-1990.
101 Abbott, John. , 1984.
102 Babbitt, Bruce. , 1984-1986.
103 DeConcini, Dennis. , 1983-1986.
104 Gregory, Michael. , 1983-1985,undated.
105 Kamp, Richard , 1983-1986.
106 Kolbe, Jim. , 1983-1986.
107 Udall, Morris. , 1985.
108 American Lung Association. , 1983-1985.
109 Arizona Clean Air Coalition. , 1985.
1010 Earth First! , 1984-1986.
1011 Environmental Defense Fund. , 1985,undated.
111 Environmental Protection Agency. , 1985-1986.
112 Green Action Environmental Communications Network. , 1985-1986.
113 Greenpeace. , 1984-1985.
114 Project Lighthawk. , 1985,undated.
115 Sierra Club. , 1985.
116 Southwest Environmental Service. , 1984-1986.
117 United Steelworkers of America. , 1984-1985.
Series 6: Newspaper Clippings, 1981-1991
.25 Linear Feet (about 375 items)
Arrangement: Alphabetical
The Newspaper Clippings Series contains clippings regarding G.A.S.P. activities and demonstrations and more generally the smelter pollution issue in the Southwest and related environmental issues. There are a small number of Spanish and German language clippings from Mexican and German publications.
118 General. , undated.
119-11 General. , 1981-1991.
1112 General (Spanish and German). , 1984-1985.
Series 7: Negatives, Photographs, and Slides, 1980-1985
.25 Linear Feet (About 450 Items)
Arrangement: Alphabetical
The Negatives, Photographs, and Slides Series contains materials in these three formats chronicling G.A.S.P. activism and smelter pollution in Southeastern Arizona and Sonara, Mexico. Also included are three slideshows used for G.A.S.P. presentations.
1113 Miscellaneous. , undated.
1114 Negatives--Smelter Pollution. , undated.
1115 Photographs--Demonstrations. , 1985,undated.
121 Photographs--Smelter Pollution. , 1984-1985,undated.
122 Slides--Cananea and Nacozari Smelters. , 1983-1986.
123 Slides--Smelter Pollution. , 1984-1985.
124 Slideshow--Environmental Defense Fund. , undated.
125 Slideshow--Cathé Fish. , 1980-1985.
126 Slideshow--Groups Against Smelter Pollution. , undated.
Series 8: Oversized Materials, 1987
Two Linear Feet (one item)
The Oversized Materials Series contains one scrapbook containing photographs, clippings, publications and other items commemorating the activities of G.A.S.P.
13 Scrapbook. , 1987.